Samsung begins mass production of 16-GB GDDR6″

Samsung Electronics announced that it has begun mass producing the industry’s first to 16-GB of GDDR6 memory. Memory GDDR6 promises to be in demand for the release of gaming devices, graphics adapters, automotive electronics, networking equipment and systems with artificial intelligence. The company believes in a “timely” release of a new type of memory, which is widely demanded by the industry and strengthen the position of Samsung among manufacturers of all types of DRAM.


Samsung начинает массовое производство 16-Гбит GDDR6"

For the production of GDDR6 chips Samsung uses process technology with the norms of class 10 nm. Judging by indirect signs, about which we say below, this can be a process with rules 18 nm, which belongs to the first generation of process technology Samsung’s 10-nanometer class. At the same time, the company began producing memory chips with use of the second generation process technology 10-nm class. According to Samsung, the production of GDDR6 chips with the norms of class-10 nm increased by 30 % compared to the volumes of production of 8-Gbit GDDR5 chips manufactured with the norms of 20 nm. If GDDR6 chips were manufactured using the process technology of the second 10-nm generation, the yield would have been much more.

It is also interesting to note that the memory GDDR6, which went to series, has more capacity than the samples shown at CES 2018 and won an award of the exhibition. So, 2018 at CES Samsung showed a 16-GB GDDR6 bandwidth 16 GB/s to contact, and the series went to the PSP memory 18 GB/s for contact. The overall throughput of 16 Gbit chip GDDR6, thus, up to 72 GB/s. It is more than two times faster if you compare the new product with 8 GB of GDDR5 with a speed of 8 GB/s to contact.

Samsung начинает массовое производство 16-Гбит GDDR6"

Finally, GDDR6 memory operates at a voltage of 1.35 V, which is 35% less than the voltage of GDDR5 memory (1.55 V). Memory with low power will consume less and, importantly for the gaming adapters will potentially be better to accelerate given the increase in power during acceleration.

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Delivery gaming console GPD Win 2 will begin in may”

On crowdfunding site Indiegogo orders for new portable Windows-based console — a gaming device Win 2 GPD.


Поставки игровой консоли GPD Win 2 начнутся в мае"

The gadget is made in the form of a mini-notebook with display on the top half of the casing and controls on the bottom. Provided by the joystick button and also keyboard with standard QWERTY layout.

Поставки игровой консоли GPD Win 2 начнутся в мае"

The “heart” of new items is Intel Core m3-7Y30 generation Kaby Lake. The chip contains two processing cores with a clock frequency of 1.0–2.6 GHz and integrated graphics accelerator Intel HD Graphics 615. The amount of RAM LPDDR3-1866 is 8 GB.

Поставки игровой консоли GPD Win 2 начнутся в мае"

As storage is used a solid-state module M. 2 2242 with a capacity of 128 GB. Provided by the wireless adapters Wi-Fi 802.11 a/ac/b/g/n and Bluetooth 4.2. The set of interfaces includes USB 3.0 ports Type-A and USB Type-C, HDMI port and 3.5 mm audio Jack. In addition, a slot for flash cards microSD.

Поставки игровой консоли GPD Win 2 начнутся в мае"

Power is provided by two batteries with a capacity of 4900 mA·h each. Claimed battery life on one charge 6-8 hours. The dimensions are 162 × 99 × 25 mm, weight — 460 grams. Applied 64-bit operating system, Windows 10 Home.

Producing new items were required to raise $100 million Already attracted more than $630 thousand, and before the end kraudfandingovom campaign remained two months. Now you can purchase the device for $650. Deliveries will begin in may.

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Memory GDDR6 Samsung received the award of the 2018 CES Innovation”

The problem of limited bandwidth GDDR5 graphics memory in its time led to the emergence of GPU and HPC accelerators from the buffer memory HBM (HBM1) and later HBM2. Connection graphics core and crystals of the High Memory Bandwidth via the intermediate silicon layer were to increase the bandwidth of your system memory and significantly reduce the footprint of key elements of the graphics card. At the same time and deficiencies in solutions with HBM/HBM2 were many: high cost and, consequently, limit the amount of memory the virtual absence of the possibility of replacing the VRAM chips within the same generation of GPUs (again, because of the additional costs) and a strong dependence on contractors. All this has caused a parallel release of high-end graphics cards with a buffer of GDDR5 memory types, GDDR5X (hardly a full replacement GDDR5) and HBM2.


Память Samsung GDDR6 получила награду CES 2018 Innovation"

In the first half of next year to help not fast GDDR5 memory and a more expensive GDDR5X comes ICS new generation GDDR6. The production of the latter is already involved in the company’s Samsung and SK Hynix, and volume shipments should begin in the coming months. However, in serial GDDR6 cards will only appear in the spring with the first of the series of adapters GeForce NVIDIA and/or TITAN 12-nm chips Volta. Before Samsung Electronics informed the public about its plans to issue chip GDDR6 bandwidth from 14 to 16 Gbps per contact (against a maximum of 9 GB/s from GDDR5 and 10-11,4 GB/s at GDDR5X), and SK Hynix announced a 8-GB (1-GB) chips with GDDR6 bandwidth limit at 16 GB/s for contact.

The war of press releases between South Korean manufacturers and continues VRAM these days. Among the many Samsung products awarded CES Innovation 2018, was a place for 16-Gbit (2 GB) chip GDDR6.

Память Samsung GDDR6 получила награду CES 2018 Innovation"

“Samsung GDDR6 capacity of 16 Gbps — the fastest and most economical DRAM memory for graphics products for the next generation. It handles images and video with a bandwidth of 16 Gbps per contact and total PSP 64 GB/s, which is equivalent to the transfer volume twelve DVD disks with Full HD video per second. New DRAM can operate at a voltage of 1.35 V, which provides an additional advantage compared to today’s graphical memory, which needs 1.5 V with a bandwidth of only 8GB/s contact”.

Память Samsung GDDR6 получила награду CES 2018 Innovation"
Память Samsung GDDR6 получила награду CES 2018 Innovation"

How did you find the resource VideoCardz, the above description corresponds to the product Samsung GDDR6 marked K4ZAF325BM. Eight of these chips (a total of 128 GB or 16 GB) gives the total bandwidth of 512 GB/s 256-bit memory bus, and twelve chips — 768 GB/s with a 384-bit bus. For comparison, the buffer memory HBM2 have a Radeon RX Vega 64 (and a number of non-gaming adapters) is characterized by a total cap 484 GB/s, and HPC accelerator Tesla V100 — 900gb/s. of Course, the development of High Bandwidth Memory also is not static, but conditional HBM3 clearly delayed relative to GDDR6.

Память Samsung GDDR6 получила награду CES 2018 Innovation"

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Enterprises Samsung started mass production of advanced DDR4 DRAM chips”

Samsung Electronics has announced mass production of the advanced microchips DDR4 (Double Data Rate-4) DRAM, with a capacity of 8 GB.


На предприятиях Samsung начат массовый выпуск передовых чипов DDR4 DRAM"

It is argued that in an industry first, the technology involved 10-nanometer class (1y-nm) of the second generation. Compared with the technique of the first generation was able to improve key performance indicators.

In particular, the new chips show an increase in performance by approximately 10% compared to similar products capacity of 10-nanometer of a class of the first generation. The speed of information transmission increased from 3200 to 3600 Mbit/s per one conclusion. At the same time, energy efficiency has increased by 15 %.

На предприятиях Samsung начат массовый выпуск передовых чипов DDR4 DRAM"

Improve key characteristics was achieved through the introduction of new technologies, in particular proprietary circuit design.

It is noted that the new achievement will help Samsung to accelerate the market introduction of memory chips of the next generation. Speech, in particular, on the products DDR5, HBM3, LPDDR5 and GDDR6. These solutions are named the wide range of applications: it server hardware, high performance systems, supercomputers, mobile devices, and graphics accelerators.

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Toshiba: large consumers of memory LPDDR4x and GDDR6 will be cars”

Survived! “How much VRAM in your car?”, — ask in a year or two a friend of a friend. — “And I added the other day — he says, — now, on unfamiliar roads no brakes”. Yes, indeed, Micron issued a press release in which it announced that the key to self-driving cars of the near future will become a memory LPDDR4x and GDDR6. By 2020, says the American memory manufacturer with an Internet-connected car with the autopilot will require up to 1 TB (operating) storage with a capacity of 300 GB/s. This memory will become LPDDR4x chips and later chips GDDR6.


Micron: крупными потребителями памяти LPDDR4x и GDDR6 станут автомобили"

The company Micron started to supply car manufacturers “fastest” memory LPDDR4x-4266. Voltage memory LPDDR4x below the supply voltage of the LPDDR4 memory, which saves the consumption of the memory subsystem from 10% to 20 %. In 2017 in terms of bits of memory LPDDR4x block the production volumes LPDDR4, but it is popular mainly in older smartphones price category. With a light hand Acer memory LPDDR4x will move in cars (at least in generic I hope so) where she would become a memory subsystem with a total capacity of up to 100 GB/s.

Micron: крупными потребителями памяти LPDDR4x и GDDR6 станут автомобили"

As for GDDR6 memory, its mass production company ITC intends to begin in late 2017 or early 2018. Representatives of Toshiba are in talks in the search for interested partners in the supply GDDR6 for the automotive market. Cloud, machine learning and artificial intelligence will drive increased demand for productive memory for cars.

Micron: крупными потребителями памяти LPDDR4x и GDDR6 станут автомобили"

The company also announced that before the end of the year will supply the sets for the development of safe compounds for the things with the Internet connection, which also will include cars. We are talking about an integrated hardware and software platform Authenta. The platform allows protected loading and processing data in a certified memory company. LPDDR4x memory and GDDR6 will also support the technology in the Autonomous computing platforms. If all goes according to plan, Acer for memory, you have unlimited market. Let’s hope that this will not lead to a shortage of memory chips.

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CES 2018: Hyperkin unveiled its version Nintendo Game Boy — GB Ultra”

The company Hyperkin, who gained fame for his series of retro-consoles, CES 2018 unveiled a prototype Ultra GB which serves to reproduce the original Nintendo Game Boy.

CES 2018: Hyperkin представила свою версию Nintendo Game Boy — Ultra GB"

Ultra GB has a very similar design with the Game Boy Pocket, but its body is made entirely of aluminium and the screen has a backlight. The button layout and ergonomics remained the same, even the volume control. Despite the fact that the concept was presented with a blue screen backlight, Hyperkin claims that the final product you’ll be able to change its color.

CES 2018: Hyperkin представила свою версию Nintendo Game Boy — Ultra GB"

The prototype Ultra GB was also presented with built-in DC power, but its final version will be a port of the USB type-C for charging the battery. In addition, the console can talk to other Ultra GB cable to play multiplayer mode. Stereoaudio is another improvement, which will offer “portable” from Hyperkin.

The company has not announced a release date for Ultra GB, but said that launch until the end of 2018. According to Hyperkin, its cost will not exceed $100 (~5700 rubles). Following the display of the portable console is scheduled in June at E3 2018.

CES 2018: Hyperkin представила свою версию Nintendo Game Boy — Ultra GB"

Hyperkin has released SuperRetroN HD to run the games from the SNES, Atari Flashback 8 HD SEGA Genesis Flashback HD, as well as many other versions of retro consoles and accessories and smartphones. All the company’s products are available on the official website.

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Developer Google told revealed architectural puncture Xbox 360″

On the wave of public interest in the vulnerabilities of Meltdown and the Spectre programmer Bruce Dawson (Bruce Dawson), who now in Google on performance optimization and reliability testing of the algorithms decided to tell the story of how discovered a similar architectural vulnerability of processor the Xbox 360. In 2005, he recognized to be lived and breathed this chip trying to figure out how his pipeline to identify possible faults and errors before launch.


Разработчик Google рассказал, как выявил архитектурный прокол Xbox 360"

The CPU of the Xbox 360 includes three cores with the IBM PowerPC architecture — they are located on three quarters of occupied CPU chip area, and the last quarter is reserved for 1 MB of L2 cache. Each core includes a 32 KB cache for instructions and 32 KB data cache. The problem of the chip was to long delays, especially when dealing with memory. In addition, 1 MB of L2 cache (all that could fit in a given area) was not enough for a 3-core processor. So optimizing the use of cache memory was very important.

The cache memory improves CPU performance by using spatial and temporal locality. Spatial locality means that if the algorithm used a byte of data at a certain address, it is likely that he will soon be using the bytes of data from neighbouring locations. Temporal locality means that if used a certain stored in the cache information, it probably will be used again in the near future.

Разработчик Google рассказал, как выявил архитектурный прокол Xbox 360"

If processing a large data array once per frame, it is expected that they will disappear from the L2 cache to the time reuse in the next frame. Sometimes data is still needed in the L1 cache, but despite the fact they consume valuable space in the L2 cache, displacing valuable data and, perhaps, slowing down the other two cores. The MESI Protocol is used for memory coherency requires that when one core modifies a cache line, any other engine with its copy could not use the cached data.

But it was the processor for game consoles, and performance was in the first place. Therefore, we added a new manual — xdcbt. And if the standard dcbt in the PowerPC was a typical instruction prefetch, xdcbt allowed to sample directly from the memory to the data cache L1, skipping L2. As a result, the coherence of the memory was no longer guaranteed, but the developers of the games knew what they were doing and all should be well. However, experience has revealed problems with prefetching xdcbt: when the statement is applied to the cache lines, the last of which was part related data structures, experience crashes. So use xdcbt have been extremely careful not to leave any bytes outside of the buffer.

Разработчик Google рассказал, как выявил архитектурный прокол Xbox 360"

But then the same problem began to manifest itself even in places where games have not used manual xdcbt — it was a very serious obstacle to the launch platform. Bruce Dawson fought in vain to identify the reasons of error, until it dawned on me. After the letter to IBM fears were confirmed — it was the intricacies of the design of the CPU, which few people thought.

Although the chip of the Xbox 360, unlike most modern chip — processor with serial execution of instructions, based primarily on high frequency to achieve good performance, it also has foreteller of branchings is caused by very long lines (which correctly predicted the user could even accelerate the sequential execution of commands).

Разработчик Google рассказал, как выявил архитектурный прокол Xbox 360"

Now, sometimes block branch prediction the long delays caused speculative instruction prefetch xdcbt, which worked identically to real and could cause the same problems as in the real call to the same statement. A similar difficulty with speculative execution of instructions by the processor, enhancing productivity is the basis of recently disclosed vulnerabilities Meltdown and the Spectre.

The principle of operation of the unit branch prediction has shown that manual xdcbt too unsafe from the point of view of stability of the system to engage in any segments of code any games for the Xbox 360. The ability to reduce the risks were, but completely avoiding them is hardly possible and therefore Bruce Dawson doubts that left at least one game, which used xdcbt, although in the discussions on the architecture of the Xbox 360, it continues to be referred to.

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Sony sold over the holidays 5.9 million PlayStation 4″

Sony announced that for the holiday season sold worldwide, 5.9 million consoles PlayStation 4. It’s a little less than a year ago, according to a press release of January 4, 2017, then the company sold 6.2 million consoles.


Sony продала за праздники 5,9 млн PlayStation 4"

As at 31 December 2017 the total global sales of the PlayStation 4 reached 73.6 million units. In early December, the Japanese giant said that the world has bought over 70 million units. These figures include all of the console versions — including the powerful PlayStation 4 Pro.

According to Sony, sales of digital products for the holidays also jumped gamers acquired 55,9 million games for the PlayStation 4. Total game sales reached 645 million copies. During the same period, 2016, the company sold 50 million games.

All calculations were made most Sony and directly affect the purchases made by people, not delivery in General. Data were collected from mid-November to the end of the year.

Sony added that the number of PlayStation Plus subscribers has exceeded 31.5 million December was the best month for sales in the digital store PlayStation Store — though the exact figures, the company did not disclose.

Sony продала за праздники 5,9 млн PlayStation 4"

It is unlikely Sony upset a small drop in sales. It was the first holiday season, in which she had to compete with Nintendo Switch. The latter came out in March and by mid-December, sold worldwide circulation of 10 million units. Hybrid console became the fastest Nintendo console in the US.

Microsoft have not announced sales data of the Xbox One in 2017. The company is usually reluctant to disclose this information because the PlayStation 4 has a strong lead in the market of consoles.

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During the period of holidays sold more than six million PlayStation 4″

Sony over the festive period, has sold more than 6.2 million PlayStation 4, so the total sales of the game console reached more than 53.4 million, the Company noted that the indicators of Christmas and new year sales are based on an internal evaluation, which was conducted from 20 November 2016 and 1 January 2017. Sony, however, did not disclose details of sales of virtual reality helmet VR Pro and PlayStation-the PlayStation 4 version. Recall that in early December the company reported 50 million sold PlayStation 4.


За период праздников продано более шести миллионов PlayStation 4"

As for games, Sony boasted 50.4 million of completed projects for its console — this includes both digital and disc versions of them. In particular, as of December 21, one games, Uncharted 4: A Thief’s End, has sold 8.7 million copies.

“We are truly grateful for the amazing support of our fans and partners who helped make this holiday season one of the best in our history, — said the President and CEO of Sony Interactive Entertainment. We’re going to grow this year, expanding the portfolio of projects for the PlayStation 4, enriching the revolutionary gaming experience on the PlayStation VR and high-quality gaming experience on the PlayStation 4 Pro, at the same time expanding network services. We remain steadfast in turning the PlayStation 4 the best place to play”.

За период праздников продано более шести миллионов PlayStation 4"

PlayStation 4 appeared on the market in November 2013, and recently, three years after the release of the original console, consumers became available and PlayStation 4 Pro with more powerful hardware stuffing. The output of the virtual reality helmet VR PlayStation was held in October 2016.

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Microsoft introduced Xbox wireless controller limited edition Sea of Thieves”

Microsoft has expanded its range of gaming accessories, announced the Xbox wireless controller limited edition Sea of Thieves.


Microsoft представила беспроводной геймпад Xbox ограниченной серии Sea of Thieves"

The manipulator has a very original performance. “He’ll hypnotize you with its dark purple translucent body, which is decorated with laser engraved tentacles, priceless gold trigger and predatory skull glow in the dark,” says Microsoft.

Microsoft представила беспроводной геймпад Xbox ограниченной серии Sea of Thieves"

The controller is compatible with games consoles Xbox One X Xbox One S, Xbox One and computers running the Windows operating system 10.

Microsoft представила беспроводной геймпад Xbox ограниченной серии Sea of Thieves"

Among other features can highlight the textured handle, the ability to assign buttons, Bluetooth wireless technology and a 3.5-millimeter headset audiokniga.

Microsoft представила беспроводной геймпад Xbox ограниченной серии Sea of Thieves"

On sale Xbox limited edition Sea of Thieves will be available soon. Information about the approximate price at the moment, unfortunately, no.

Note that the pirate action Sea of Thieves will be released in March of this year. Players will search for treasure, participate in sea battles, enemies to feed the sharks, Rob Galleons and others of the colony, to fight with the skeletons and drinking in the local taverns.

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